The Affordable Care and Patient Protection Act mandated that payment to Accountable Care Organizations (ACOs) be based on health outcomes of the populations being served and not the volume of services provided. Inspired by the “Triple Aim
,” ACOs’ efforts to improve health outcomes while reducing costs are labelled “population health.” These efforts fit within the IAPHS vision of population health, but the IAPHS vision is broader in several ways. First, ACO efforts tend to target the patient populations they serve rather than whole communities (although there are some exceptions). Second, health-improvement strategies tend to be centered around quality of care and individual-level interventions, leaving out a very important aspect of population health – improving the contexts that make people healthy or sick.